About the Gynaecology, Obstetrics And Infertility

The Department of Gynaecology, Obstetrics, and Infertility at Sunrise Hospital provides Comprehensive and Compassionate Care to women throughout all stages of their lives. Our team of highly skilled and experienced doctors is committed to delivering the highest standard of Medical Care. We understand that women have unique healthcare concerns and strive to offer personalized, evidence-based treatments to meet their individual needs.



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Gynaecology, Obstetrics And Infertility Services

The Department of Gynaecology, Obstetrics, and Infertility

Treatment and Procedure

Preterm Labor occurs when regular contractions lead to the opening of cervix after week 20 and before 37 week of pregnancy. It can be caused by infections and inflammation of the uterus, bladder or kidneys. Also due to hypertension or diabetes, lifestyle factors like poor nutrition, smoking and also age related factors. Treatments like medications and lifestyle adjustments can help.

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy complication that leads to high blood pressure and damage the other organ system mostly liver and kidneys. It usually begins after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Symptoms like severe headache, loss of vision, nausea, vomiting, sudden weight gain and abdominal pain can be experienced. The only treatment is to lower blood pressure through medications and delivering the baby.

Eclampsia is a severe pregnancy complication that is seen with seizures. It can develop before, during or after the delivery. Seizures, headache, nausea and vomiting are few symptoms that can be prevented by medications like Magnesium sulfate to prevent seizures, blood pressure control medications etc.

Gestational diabetes a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy that is high blood sugar levels that was not present before. This usually resolves after the childbirth. It can be due to obesity, hormonal changes, age or a family history. It can be treated by exercises, healthy diet, blood sugar monitoring and medications if necessary.

Placenta previa is a pregnancy complication where the placenta partially or fully covers the cervix, the opening to the uterus that leads to the birth canal. It can cause severe bleeding before or during delivery. Hospitalisation may be required and it often involves a C-section if the condition persists.

Placental abruption is a serious complication where the placenta detaches from the inner wall of the uterus before childbirth. This can deprive the baby of oxygen and nutrients and can cause heavy bleeding in the mother. In mild cases, bed rest and possibly early delivery are done. In severe cases, C-section is done to prevent severe complications.

Intrauterine growth restriction IUGR a condition in which a fetus doesn’t grow at the expected rate during pregnancy. It can be caused by maternal health issues, placental problems or fetal genetic abnormalities. Maintaining good maternal health including proper nutrition and avoiding tobacco and alcohol helps prevent the issue.

Oligohydramnios is low level of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus during pregnancy. In some cases, fluid intake or bed rest may be recommended. And sometimes, a medical intervention and early delivery may be needed. Polyhydramnios a condition where there is too much amniotic fluid around the baby in the womb. It often resolves on it’s own but in severe cases medical interventions such as removal of excess fluid may be required.

Miscarriage also known as abortion, is the loss of pregnancy before the 20 th week. It happens due to various reasons including genetic abnormalities, hormonal issues and infections. Therefore, medical intervention is needed, regular monitoring to prevent any further complications, counselling and emotional support may be recommended to help cope with the loss. Stillbirth refers to the loss of baby before or during delivery after the 20 th week that needs emotional support and guidance from the healthcare team and support groups during the difficult time.

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus in one of the fallopian tubes. It can lead to rupture and internal bleeding. Symptoms are abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding and shoulder pain. Early detection and medical intervention is necessary to avoid complications.

Hyperemesis Gravidarum is severe morning sickness during pregnancy like nausea, vomiting, weight loss and dehydration. It requires medical intervention to ensure the health of both mother and the baby.

Rh incompatibility in pregnancy occurs when a mother is Rh negative and baby is Rh positive. This can lead to maternal antibodies attacking the baby’s red blood cells causing a condition called haemolytic disease of the newborn that can result in jaundice, anaemia and in some cases neurological problems. Medical interventions, injections are given to mothers to prevent Rh sensitization.

Umbilical cord prolapse is a serious issue where the umbilical cord slips through the cervix ahead of the baby cutting off baby’s oxygen supply. It requires immediate medical attention and often C- section is done to prevent harm to the baby.

Gestational hypertension is high blood pressure that develops during pregnancy after 20 th week. It usually resolves after the childbirth. In some cases, lifestyle modifications, medications to lower blood pressure and hospitalization may be necessary for closer monitoring.

Anaemia in pregnancy is commonly seen where a woman has low red blood cells. It is important for pregnant women to have their iron levels checked regularly and take supplements to prevent complications.

Infections in pregnancy like UTIs are commonly seen in pregnancy due to hormonal changes and the growing uterus pressing on the bladder. Group B streptococcus a bacterial infection which can be treated by antibiotics during labour to reduce the risk of passing it to their babies. Some infections like cytomegalovirus or toxoplasmosis can be concerning during pregnancy. It is essential to consult with the healthcare team for proper treatment and minimize the complications.

HELLP syndrome is a serious pregnancy condition where breakdown of red blood cells, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count are seen. Treatment involves delivering the baby and closely monitor the mother’s condition.

Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare but serious condition where amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair enters the mother’s bloodstream during childbirth that can cause an allergic reaction leading to respiratory or cardiovascular collapse. Immediate medical intervention is required to prevent further complications.

Preterm premature rupture of membranes PPROM is a condition in pregnancy where the amniotic sac ruptures before 37 weeks of gestation and before the onset of labour which can lead to several complications for both mother and the baby. It can be caused by infections, lifestyle factors and cervical incompetence etc. Immediate hospitalization is required to monitor the mother and the fetus. Some medications to delay labour and antibiotics to prevent the infection are given.

Postpartum Hemorrhage PPH is excessive bleeding following childbirth which can be caused by failure of uterus to contract effectively, placental tissue clots or tears in the uterus, cervix or vagina. Medications, IV fluids, blood transfusions and in severe cases surgery may be required.

Shoulder dystocia is a condition that occurs in the childbirth when baby’s shoulder gets stuck behind the mother’s pelvic bone after the head has been delivered. It can be caused either by maternal diabetes, obesity or prolonged labour. Few techniques to rotate the baby’s shoulder, turning the baby by applying pressure to the posterior shoulder, applying pressure above the pubic bone to help dislodge the shoulder are done.

Breech presentation occurs when a baby is positioned to be delivered buttocks or feet first instead of head position first by applying pressure to the abdomen. This can happen in premature birth, multiple pregnancies or insufficient amniotic fluid. In some cases, vaginal breech delivery under specific conditions may be considered. C-section is often recommended.

Prolonged labour occurs when labour lasts longer than usual. Factors like fetal position, pelvic shape or size, weak contractions, large baby, maternal exhaustion could be the reasons. Treatments include medications to strengthen the contractions, epidurals, encouraging different position changes or a C-section is considered.

Perineal tear is the laceration that occurs in the perinium the area between vagina and anus during the childbirth. It can be experienced in the first time vaginal delivery and if the baby is large. Controlled delivery techniques, perineal massage before childbirth might help.

Vasa previa is rare but serious pregnancy complication where fetal blood vessels run near the internal opening of the uterus. It can lead to fetal blood loss and can be life threatening. Hospitalization is recommended to closely monitor the fetus and a planned C-section is usually scheduled.

Multiple gestations in pregnancy is more than one fetus in the uterus. This can result in twins, triplets, quadruplets or even more. It could be age related, or family history. It requires specialized care and monitoring due to higher risks involved to manage potential complications.

Incompetent cervix is a condition where the cervix begins to dilate and efface during pregnancy without contractions or labour. This can lead to preterm birth or miscarriage usually in the second trimester. Surgical procedure like cervical cerclage where the cervix is stitched closed tom prevent premature dilation and complete bed rest is recommended for some. Pessary a device is placed in the vagina to support the cervix is used.

Maternal obesity is having a Body mass index of 30 or higher during pregnancy either due to gestational diabetes, high blood pressure or some infections. This can be managed by pre-pregnancy weight loss through diet and exercise, nutritional counselling and closely monitoring of weight gain, blood pressure and glucose levels.

Fetal distress during pregnancy refers to the the labour indicating fetus not getting enough oxygen. It can be detected through abnormal heart rate or decreased movements. A medical intervention is required to closely monitor to ensure the safety of both mother and the baby.

Cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver condition that occurs during pregnancy causing a decrease in the flow of bile leading to intense itching on the palms and soles of the feet. Medications to reduce itching and monitoring the baby’s well being through tests are important.

Multiple gestations in pregnancy is more than one fetus in the uterus. This can result in twins, triplets, quadruplets or even more. It could be age related, or family history. It requires specialized care and monitoring due to higher risks involved to manage potential complications.

Incompetent cervix is a condition where the cervix begins to dilate and efface during pregnancy without contractions or labour. This can lead to preterm birth or miscarriage usually in the second trimester. Surgical procedure like cervical cerclage where the cervix is stitched closed tom prevent premature dilation and complete bed rest is recommended for some. Pessary a device is placed in the vagina to support the cervix is used.

Maternal obesity is having a Body mass index of 30 or higher during pregnancy either due to gestational diabetes, high blood pressure or some infections. This can be managed by pre-pregnancy weight loss through diet and exercise, nutritional counselling and closely monitoring of weight gain, blood pressure and glucose levels.

Fetal distress during pregnancy refers to the the labour indicating fetus not getting enough oxygen. It can be detected through abnormal heart rate or decreased movements. A medical intervention is required to closely monitor to ensure the safety of both mother and the baby.

Cholestasis of pregnancy is a liver condition that occurs during pregnancy causing a decrease in the flow of bile leading to intense itching on the palms and soles of the feet. Medications to reduce itching and monitoring the baby’s well being through tests are important.

Umbilical cord abnormalities include issues like knots, excess length or abnormal insertions. These can sometimes lead to complications during pregnancy. For most treatment may not be necessary but some cases close monitoring and medical interventions required if the complications arise like decreased blood flow to the fetus or signs of distress.

Maternal age complications can impact pregnancy and childbirth. For women above 35 years higher risk for chromosomal abnormalities in babies can be faced. Higher risk of complications like gestational diabetes and high blood pressure in older women might be seen. It is important to receive proper prenatal care to avoid any risks.

Fetal Macrosomia is a medical condition where a fetus grows larger than average for its gestational age. It is caused by factors like maternal diabetes, obesity, genetic factors or weight gain that increases the fetal size. This can be managed by monitoring fetal growth, blood sugar control and a careful delivery planning possibly a C-section if the fetus is very large.

Post term pregnancy is one that extends beyond 42 weeks of gestation. It is also called overdue pregnancy. Factors like a history of post-term pregnancy, family history may play a role in prolonging pregnancy. This can be managed by carefully monitoring prenatal care, fetal surveillance, amniotic fluid assessment, medications to avoid any complications.

Neonatal Abstinence syndrome is a condition that occurs in newborns who are exposed to certain drugs like opioids and certain antidepressants during pregnancy. Medications to relieve severe symptoms, ensuring proper nutrition and hydration, close monitoring in the neonatal ICU are recommended.

Peripartum Cardiomyopathy is a rare form of heart failure that occurs during the last month of pregnancy or within five months after delivery, without any other cause for heart failure. The heart muscles weaken which leads to reduced blood flow and cause heart failure, shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling of the legs and feet, rapid heartbeats. Medications, lifestyle changes and in some cases heart transplantation may be required.

Congenital anomalies are the birth defects either structural or functional that occur during intrauterine life and can be identified at birth or sometimes later in life like Cleft lip and palate, heart defects, metabolic disorders which can be caused by either genetic factors or exposure to certain drugs, chemicals or infections during pregnancy. Treatments include medical and surgical interventions and physical therapy.

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD is a condition that occurs when the mother consumes alcohol during pregnancy. This leads to facial abnormalities, low body weight, short height, small head size, behavioral issues and developmental issues. Medical care, educational support to help with learning and developmental delays and behavioural therapy are considered to improve social skills.

Psychiatric disorders in pregnancy affect both maternal and fetal health. It ranges from mood swings, anxiety disorder, depression, OCD, panic attacks and more severe conditions like bipolar disorder. Medications, psychotherapy and counselling might help manage the symptoms’

Uterine rupture a complication where the wall of the uterus tears during pregnancy or labour. It can be caused by previous uterine surgery, trauma to the abdomen, multiple gestation and can be prevented by carefully monitoring labour, considering Vaginal birth after Cesarean delivery.

Chorioamnionitis also called intra-amniotic infection of the fetal membranes and amniotic fluid that occurs before or during labour. It is caused by bacterial infections, prolonged labour, preterm labour that leads to symptoms like fever, labour complications, uterine tenderness or pain and elevated fetal and maternal heart rate. Treatment focuses on intravenous antibiotics and expedient delivery is considered.

Retained placenta a condition where placenta are not delivered from the uterus after childbirth. This can lead to severe bleeding, infection and in some cases infertility if not managed properly. Medications and antibiotics to remove the infection is recommended. Surgical method like D&C may be required to remove the placenta or it can also be removed manually from the uterus.

Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that affects new mothers after childbirth. Feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion may be experienced. It can be prevented by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, balanced diet, regular exercises, adequate sleep, social support from friends and family and prenatal care.

Peurperal Sepsis is an infection that occur after childbirth, within the first six weeks often caused by bacteria entering the body during labour or shortly after delivery. Symptoms like fever, abdominal pain and unusual discharge are seen. Treatment involves antibiotics to fight the infection and surgical intervention may be needed to remove the infected tissue.

Amniotic band syndrome is rare condition where fibrous bands from the amniotic sac wrap around parts of the fetus, restricting blood flow and affecting development. Maintaining good prenatal care and avoiding smoking and certain medications may reduce the risk.

Uterine inversion is rare but a serious complication where the uterus turns inside out after delivery. It requires immediate treatment to avoid hemorrhage and shock. This can be managed and controlled through medications and ensuring gentle handling of the placenta.

Uterine agony is an intense pain in the uterus which can be caused by menstrual cramps, endometriosis, fibroids, pelvic and gynaecological issues. Treatment includes pain medications, hormone therapy, physical therapy and in some cases surgery is recommended.

Pregnancy related hypertensive disorders includes gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and eclampsia where blood pressure goes high and leads to seizures. Immediate medical attention is needed to protect both the mother and baby’s health. Medications to lower the blood pressure and prevent seizures, complete bed rest is recommended.

Polycystic ovary Syndrome PCOS is a common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. It is caused by hormonal imbalances and metabolic issues. This leads to irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovaries that are the enlarged ovaries containing numerous small fluid-sacs that surround the eggs and can cause infertility. This can be managed by lifestyle modifications, medications for fertility treatment that can induce ovulation.

Endometriosis is a medical condition where the tissue endometrium grows outside the uterus. This often cause pain, fatigue, bloating, constipation, irregular periods with heavy bleeding and can lead to fertility issues. Factors involved are hormonal imbalances, immune system disorders and genetic factors as well. Treatment involves pain relievers, hormone therapy and surgical procedure like hysterectomy is considered.

Uterine fibroids also called myomas, are noncancerous growths that develop in the uterus wall. Caused by hormones like estrogen and progesterone or a family history. Symptoms like heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pain, frequent urination, constipation, backpain and leg pains are experienced. Medications and minimally invasive procedures like myomectomy or hysterectomy are done to remove the uterus.

Ovulatory disorders is a condition where release of eggs or ovulation is disrupted which affect the fertility. This can be caused by PCOS, stress, Thyroid dysfunction, obesity and certain medications. It can be treated by lifestyle changes, medications, laparoscopic surgery and IVF treatment may be recommended for some cases. Premature ovarian failure POF is a condition where loss of normal ovarian function before the age of 40. Women experience irregular or absent menstrual periods, reduced fertility, night sweats and vaginal dryness. This can happen due to genetic factors, autoimmune disorders, due to chemotherapy, radiation, certain medications, infections and environmental factors like smoking and some chemicals. Treatment includes Hormone replacement therapy, fertility treatment like IVF, calcium and vitamin D supplements.

Tubal blockages also known as fallopian tube blockages, occurs when fallopian tubes are obstructed preventing the egg from travelling from the ovary to the uterus. Mainly caused by Pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, ectopic surgery and congenital abnormalities. Treated by medications and antibiotics for preventing infections, surgical procedure to remove the blockage via laparoscopy and IVF.

Pelvic inflammatory disease PID an infection of the reproductive organs occurs when sexually transmitted bacterias spread from vagina to the reproductive organs leading to painful intercourse, painful urination, fever, lower abdominal pain, unusual vaginal discharge and irregular menstrual bleeding. It can be treated by antibiotics to treat the infection and some may need hospitalization.

Hypothyroidism a condition where the thyroid gland in the neck produce insufficient amount of thyroid hormones that impacts on the menstrual cycle and ovulation. Caused by autoimmune disorders, iodine deficiency, radiation therapy, thyroid surgery and certain medications. It leads to menstrual irregularities, ovulation issues, difficult to conceive and hormonal imbalances. This can be treated by thyroid hormone replacement therapy and some lifestyle modifications. Hyperthyroidism a condition that can impact ovulation. The thyroid hormones help in regulating the menstrual cycle and an imbalance can disrupt the ovulation leading to irregular periods. Caused by factors like genetic, autoimmune conditions or environmental factors. Maintaining a healthy diet, avoiding smoking and managing stress can help manage the complications.

Hyperprolactinemia is a condition of high levels of prolactin in the blood. Causes are certain medications, tumors of the pituitary gland, hypothyroidism and other conditions. Symptoms includes irregular menstrual periods and infertility issues. Treatment focuses on medications to lower prolactin levels, fertility treatment and surgery to remove the tumor may be necessary. Luteal phase defect is a condition where corpus luteum does not produce enough progesterone, or the endometrium does not respond to progesterone leading to menstrual irregularities and difficulties in pregnancy and miscarriages might happen. Treatment involves progesterone supplements, managing thyroid disorders or PCOS.

Asherman’s syndrome also called intrauterine adhesions a condition of the formation of scar tissue within the uterine cavity. This can affect the uterine cavity, menstruation and fertility. Most common treatment involves the surgical removal of adhesions using a hysteroscope, hormone therapy and antibiotics in case of infections.

Endometrial polyps are the growths attached to the inner wall of the uterus that extend into the uterine cavity leading to heavy menstrual bleeding and difficulty conceiving. Hormonal treatments may help and surgical removal of polyps are done using hysteroscopy.

Cervical stenosis is the narrowing of the cervical canal obstructing the passage of sperm into the uterus leading to fertility issues, painful menstruation and bleeding. Treatments like IVF and intrauterine insemination are considered.

Blocked fallopian tube prevent the sperm from reaching the uterus which can be caused by endometriosis, sexually transmitted infections, past surgeries involving the fallopian tubes. Medications are prescribed to remove the blockages and IVF is often recommended. Age related infertility is the decline in fertility that occurs as age affecting both men and mainly women due to hormonal changes, genetic factors and menopause etc. This can be managed by hormone treatments, IVF treatment, egg or sperm donation and fertility preservation options for later use.

Autoimmune disorders can impact fertility and pregnancy leading to ovarian failure, high risk pregnancy complications, thyroid dysfunction that can disrupt menstrual cycles and ovulation. Miscarriages, preterm birth and developmental issues in the baby might happen, PCOS and multiple sclerosis also cause infertility due to ovulatory dysfunction. Medications are often recommended that are considered safe during pregnancy.

Chronic diseases can affect the fertility involving conditions like PCOS, diabetes, thyroid disorders, endometriosis and autoimmune diseases like lupus. Treatment includes pain management, hormonal therapy and surgical method to remove endometrial tissue and medications to manage thyroid disorders, diabetes, autoimmune disease and PCOS.

Obesity can affect ovulation due to the excess body fat that can disrupt hormone levels leading to irregular menstrual cycles. Maintaining a healthy body weight and diet can improve fertility issues. Medications may be prescribed to help regulate hormones and improve ovulation.

Underweight can indeed disrupt the menstrual cycles. When the body doesn’t have enough fat to produce hormones necessary for menstruation regularly. Increasing calorie intake and maintaining a balanced diet is necessary.

Eating disorders can affect menstruation and ovulation. This can lead to thyroid disorders, PCOS and treatment focuses on medications for PCOS, thyroid disorder and some lifestyle changes

Tobacco use can have negative effects on reproductive health that involves ovaries and ovulation. Smoking disrupts hormone levels and increase the risk of infertility and early menopause. It is important to quit smoking to optimize the chances of fertility, improve the egg quality and overall reproductive health.

Alcohol consumption can affect the ovulation. Excessive alcohol can disrupt hormone levels, leading to irregular menstrual cycles and interfering ovulation. It is important to limit the intake of alcohol, eat a balanced diet food, manage stress to support healthy ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

Chronic stress can indeed disrupt ovulation and the menstrual cycle. When in stress, the hormone levels are affected that can lead to irregular or missed periods. Stress management techniques can be helpful in restoring balance to the body’s hormonal systems.

Low sperm count or oligospermia can be caused by hormonal imbalances, genetic factors, certain medications and lifestyle factors like smoking and alcohol consumption. This can be managed by making lifestyle changes, medications to correct hormonal imbalances, hormone replacement therapy and in some cases surgery may be needed to correct physical abnormalities that affect the sperm production.

Poor sperm motility or Asthenospermia is the sperm’s inability to swim effectively towards the egg and can cause infertility problem. Lifestyle changes like maintaining a healthy weight, reducing alcohol intake, quitting smoking and managing stress can help improve sperm motility.

Abnormal sperm Morphology refers to the shape and structure of sperm cells that that might affect the ability of the sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. This can decrease fertility issues. Making positive lifestyle changes can help improve the sperm health.

Azoospermia is the absence of sperm in semen. It can be caused by hormonal imbalances, genetic issues, infections or reproductive tract blockages. Treatments like hormone therapy, IVF or surgical methods might help in sperm retrieval.

Varicocele is the enlarged veins in the scrotum that can cause discomfort or affect the fertility. Surgical intervention like varicocelectomy where the enlarged veins are surgically corrected to redirect the blood flow and relieve pressure on the testicular veins, lifestyle changes, pain management, IVF can be considered.

Hormonal imbalances can impact the sperm production. Low testosterone, thyroid hormones, high levels of prolactin can disrupt the hormone balance and affect the sperm production. Medications, hormone replacement therapy, lifestyle changes and sometimes surgery may be needed.

Genetic disorders can impact male fertility, such as Klinefelter syndrome gene mutations happen. Testosterone replacement therapy may be used to improve sperm production and fertility. Cystic fibrosis gene mutation can be managed with IVF or assisted reproductive technique.

Undescended testicles or Cryptorchidism is a condition where one or both testicles fail to move into the proper position in the scrotum during fetal development. Treatment involves surgery called orchidopexy which is done in the child before 18 months old to prevent infertility and testicular cancer. In some cases, hormone therapy may be required to stimulate the descent of testicles.

Ejaculation issues are related to delayed ejaculation, premature ejaculation or difficulty achieving orgasm. It can be due to stress, anxiety, certain medicines, some ongoing health conditions or past surgeries. Treatment involves therapy, medications and lifestyle changes.

Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, where a lump, swelling and pain in the testicle or a heaviness in the scrotum is experienced. This can affect sperm production and fertility. Surgery may be considered to remove the affected testicle called orchiectomy. Additional treatments like chemo and radiation therapy are done to kill the cancer cells from spreading.

Infections like STIs can cause inflammation and blockages in reproductive tract. STIs like chlamydia and gonorrhea, if left untreated can lead to inflammation and scarring in the reproductive organs causing infertility. It can be treated with antibiotics and regular STI screenings for early detection.

Heat exposure can damage sperm production and quality. Wearing tight underwear, sitting for long time and using hot tubs frequently can affect the production. It is recommended to avoid using excessive heat on the testicles to maintain sperm health.

Obesity causing hormonal imbalances can affect the sperm production. Maintaining a healthy weight is important for overall reproductive health. Focusing on healthy diet, regular exercises and managing stress may be beneficial.

Smoking can have negative effects on male fertility. It can lower the sperm count, decrease sperm motility that can impact fertility. Adopting a healthy lifestyle, avoid smoking and other environmental toxins can improve the reproductive health.

Alcohol consumption can affect testosterone levels and lead to decreased sperm production and quality impacting fertility. It is important to reduce intake of alcohol for overall reproductive health.

Substance abuse is the use of drugs like marijuana, cocaine impacting sperm health. They can affect the sperm count, motility and morphology leading to infertility in men. Quitting drugs, leading a healthy lifestyle, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol can help manage the sperm health.

Radiation and chemotherapy can affect the sperm production by damaging the cells in the testes leading to infertility. Treatments like hormone therapy, IVF using stored sperm samples can help manage infertility problems caused by radiation and chemotherapy.

Environmental toxins like heavy metals and pesticides can impact the sperm quality. This can affect sperm count, motility and morphology leading to fertility issues. It is important to minimize the exposure to these toxins, maintaining healthy lifestyle, avoiding contaminated water and certain foods for overall reproductive health.

Diabetes can affect the sperm quality and sexual function. I can lower the sperm count, reduce sperm motility, erectile dysfunction and can affect fertility. Therefore, managing blood sugar levels and maintaining a healthy lifestyle is important.

Age related infertility affect male fertility to produce sperm. The quality and quantity may decline with age. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, hormone therapy and medications can improve sperm production.

Autoimmune disorders like SLE systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect the sperm production and function due to body’s immune system attacking it’s own tissues and reproductive organs. This can lead to decreased sperm count, reduced sperm motility and abnormal sperm morphology. Medications to suppress the immune response and IVF may be considered to overcome fertility issues.

Testosterone replacement therapy is a treatment done to increase testosterone levels in men to improve low libido, muscle weakness etc. It is administered through methods like injections, gels or pellets. Lifestyle modifications can also help managing the testosterone levels naturally.

Physical trauma and injuries to the reproductive organs can affect fertility by interfering with sperm production, transportation or function. Surgical intervention to repair the damage and medications to reduce the inflammation and infection are recommended. IVF is considered if necessary.

Chronic illness like kidney disease can impact the overall reproductive health. This can lead to hormonal imbalances, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction that can impact fertility. Lifestyle changes, Medications and hormone therapy can help improve the reproductive health.

Nutritional deficiencies like lack of Vitamin and minerals known for it’s antioxidant properties helps prevent sperm damage, Omega-3 fatty acids, folate, zinc are all essential for testosterone production and sperm formation. A balanced diet rich nutrients can help maintain the sperm quality and fertility.

Painful menstruation or Dysmenorrhea are painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin caused by the production of prostaglandins in the uterine lining which leads to uterine contractions. Medication and sometimes surgical intervention may be needed.

Heavy menstrual bleeding or Menorrhagia is the heavy blood flow that can stay more then 7 days, passing large blood clots, restricting daily activities causing tiredness and fatigue. It can be caused by hormonal imbalances, Uterine fibroids, pregnancy complications, cancer etc. Medications may help but in severe cases surgeries like myomectomy or hysterectomy may be required.

Irregular bleeding between periods or Metrorrhagia is abnormal bleeding from the uterus that occurs at irregular intervals between the menstrual cycle due to hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids, polyps, endometriosis, cancer or also thyroid problems. Hormonal therapies and medication may help. Surgery may also be required if necessary.

Infrequent menstrual periods or Oligomenorrhea is irregular periods that occur at intervals of greater than 35 days with only four to nine periods in a year. Caused by PCOs, thyroid disorder, stress and lifestyle factors.

Absence of menstrual periods or Amenorrhea occurs due to genetic or anatomical conditions, hormonal imbalances or reproductive organ problems. Lifestyle changes and medications may help or sometimes surgery may be needed.

Adenomyosis is the presence of endometrial tissue within the myometrium that can lead to enlarged uterus and can cause heavy bleeding, cramps, menstrual irregularities etc. Minimal invasive surgeries and Endometrial ablation or hysterectomy may be done to remove the uterus.

Hypomenorrhea are abnormally light menstrual periods resulting in the reduced frequency or volume of menstrual bleeding caused by hormonal imbalances, uterine fibroids and polyps.

Hypermenorrhea are abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding that lasts more than 7 days. Hormonal therapy and medications may help and sometimes procedures like D&C, endometrial ablation, myomectomy or hysterectomy may be needed in severe cases. PCOs is a hormonal disorder affecting reproductive age of women where they face irregular menstrual cycles, polycystic ovaries, excess hair growth on the face and body, weight gain and skin darkening in the armpits or neck area. This can be managed through lifestyle changes, medications and fertility treatments.

Endometriosis a medical condition a tissue lining inside the uterus that is called endometrium starts to grow outside the uterus. This tissue can be found on the ovaries, fallopian tubes and other organs within the pelvis. This causes pain during menstrual cycle, intercourse, bowel movements and urination. Lifestyle changes can help manage the symptoms.

Uterine fibroids or myomas are noncancerous growth of the uterus that leads to heavy bleeding, prolonged periods, frequent urination, constipation and backache. It can be caused by genetic changes, hormonal changes etc. Medications and in some cases laparoscopic procedures may be needed.

Ovarian cysts are fluid sacs that develop inside or on the ovary. Most of them go on their own without treatment. Medications can help but if the cysts are large and persistent then surgery is required. Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection in the uterus, fallopian tube and ovary caused by sexually transmitted infection or non -sexually transmitted bacteria. It is treated by antibiotics that eliminate the infection.

Vaginitis an inflammation of the vagina that leads to pain, itching and vaginal discharge which is often treated with antibiotics, antifungal medications. Bacterial vaginosis is an infection caused by bacterias in the vagina that leads to the discharge, vaginal itching and irritation. Antibiotics either oral or topical might help. Yeast infections called candidiasis affecting the genital area causing itching and irritation can be treated by topical antifungal creams or oral medicines can be used. Atrophic Vaginitis is a condition of vaginal wall thinning, drying and inflammation due to decrease in estrogen levels. Can be caused due to menopause, hormonal changes, chemotherapy to the pelvic area and certain medications. It can be cured by hormone therapy, lifestyle changes and using vaginal lubricants and moisturizers. Lichen Sclerosus are white patches of skin often in the genital and anal area causing itching, discomfort and pain. The treatment involves topical corticosteroids to reduce the inflammation. Labial fusion also called labial adhesion where the inner vaginal lipstick together which is common in young girls and usually resolves on it’s own. If it persists then medical treatment may be required. Clitoral hyperthrophy is an enlargement of clitoris which can be caused due to hormonal imbalances or certain medical conditions. Hormone therapy may be recommended and in some cases surgery may be needed to reduce the size of clitoris. Sexually transmitted infections STIs are infections spread through sexual contact. Common STIs are chlamydia caused by bacterium chlamydia trachomatis. It can infect both men and women, gonorrhea caused by bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae affects the mucous membrane of the urethra, cervix and rectum, Trichomoniasis which is caused by a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. All this leads to itching, redness, discomfort during urination and can be treated with antibiotics. Safe sex practices can help prevent the risk of transmission.

Cervical Dysplasia is the presence of abnormal cells on the surface of the cervix which are precancerous that could develop into cervical cancer if left untreated. It can be caused by Human Papillomavirus infection, smoking or a family history. Treatments include Cryotherapy, laser therapy and cone biopsy to remove the cone shaped piece of tissue from the cervix.

Cervical cancer affects the cells of cervix, the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. It can be treated if detected early. Surgical Treatments includes hysterectomy, radiation, chemo, targeted and immunotherapy.

Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer seen in the ovaries that produce eggs. Symptoms include bloating, abdominal pain, fatigue, back pain, constipation and menstrual irregularities. Surgeries and radiation therapy are used to remove the tumor.

Uterine cancer also called endometrial cancer seen in the lining of uterus called the endometrium. Hysterectomy is often done to remove the uterus including the ovaries and fallopian tubes, radiation, chemo and hormonal therapy are also done.

Vulvar cancer occurs on the external female genitalia, the vulva. It can be caused by weak immune system, smoking or conditions like lichen sclerosus can increase the risk. The areas of the vulva might become red or darker than usual, unusual bleeding and discharge not related to menstruation. Treatment includes surgery to remove the tumor, radiation, chemo and targeted therapy are often used.

Vaginal cancer forms in the tissues of the vagina. Symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding, watery vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, lump in the vagina and pain during intercourse. Surgery is recommended to remove the tumor and radiation, chemo, targeted therapy are used.

Mullerian cancer develops in the female reproductive tract including the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and upper portion of the vagina. Endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer and cervical cancers are all mullerian cancers. Early detection of these leads to better outcomes.

Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition where one or more organs in the pelvis, like the bladder, uterus or rectum bulge into the vagina due to week pelvic muscles and tissues. Treatments to strengthen the pelvic area like pelvic floor exercises to surgery are recommended.

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine that is the complete loss of bladder control. Caused by weak pelvic muscles, nerve damage or by lifestyle changes. It can be treated my making lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor exercises, medications and procedures like botox injections to the bladder muscles and nerve stimulation therapy.

Interstitial Cystitis is a pain and pressure in the bladder leading to frequent urination. Lifestyle changes and medications might help treating the condition.

Dyspareunia is the persistent genital pain experienced just before, during or after intercourse. It can be treated by topical treatments, lubricants, pelvic floor exercises or counselling to address any emotional health issues.

Vulvodynia is the chronic pain in the vulvar area without any cause. Treatments include medications, physical therapy, nerve blocks and counselling.

Menopause is the end of woman’s reproductive years in her late 40s to early 50s and perimenopause is the phase leading to menopause. Symptoms are hot flashes, mood swings and irregular periods. There are hormonal therapy, lifestyle changes and medications to manage the symptoms.

Premenstrual syndrome refers to the physical and emotional symptoms that occur in the days leading to menstruation. Symptoms like mood swings, bloating, fatigue and headaches are common. This can be managed through lifestyle changes, medication or therapy if needed.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that affects some menstruating individuals. Intense mood swings, depression or anxiety can be seen. Treatment includes therapy, lifestyle changes and sometimes medications.

Infertility is the inability to conceive a child, may be due to hormonal imbalances, low sperm count, poor sperm mobility, ovulation disorders, fallopian tube blockage, endometriosis, age related factors or may be both partners having issues. It can be treated by medications or procedures like IVF, Intrauterine insemination and Intracytoplasmic sperm injection method.

Ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus which happens in one of the fallopian tubes and that is called tubal pregnancy. Treatments include medications and laparoscopic surgery to remove the ectopic pregnancy and regular follow-ups to ensure the levels of hCG. If left untreated this can cause the fallopian tube to burst leading to life threatening internal bleeding.

Pelvic congestion syndrome is a condition caused by varicose veins in the pelvis area leading to pain and discomfort during intercourse and menstrual cycle. It can be caused by hormonal changes, genetics or enlarged veins due to increased blood volume during pregnancy. Medications, pain relievers, Minimally invasive procedures may be considered to remove or tie off varicose veins.

Asherman’s syndrome also called intrauterine adhesions, is a condition where scar tissueforms inside the uterus often due to trauma or D&C surgery which leads to menstrual abnormalities and infertility. Treatments like hormone therapy to promote healing might help.

Hypogonadism is decreased function of the ovaries leading to hormonal deficiencies,a condition where the body produces insufficient amount of sex hormones which can lead to various symptoms including reduced sex drive, infertility, fatigue and mood swings. Treatments like hormone therapy and medications might help.

Salpingitis is an inflammation of the fallopian tubes usually caused by bacterial infection which leads to pelvic pain, fever and abnormal vaginal discharge. If left untreated, it can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Antibiotics are prescribed to clear the infection.

Mullerian Agenesis also known as Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser MRKH syndrome is the absence of Mullerian ducts that develop into uterus, cervix and the upper part of the vagina. It can be genetic. Treatment focuses on the anatomical abnormalities, vaginal dilators can be used to create a functional vaginal canal and surgeries like vaginal reconstruction can be considered.

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that affects females in development and fertility. It occurs when one of the X chromosome is missing. Treatments like hormone replacement therapy and counselling can help manage the condition.

Bartholin’s Cyst is a fluid filled sac than forms in the Bartholin glands located on either side of the vaginal opening that leads to blockage. When this becomes obstructed, fluid can build up leading to the formation of a cyst. Treatment like warm soaks, surgically removing the cyst and antibiotics can help manage the issue.

Chronic pelvic pain is a common condition that affects both men and women. The pelvic pain can be constant or intermittent. It can be caused by gynaecological issues, urological issues, gastrointestinal issues or psychological factors. Medications, physical therapy, counselling, lifestyle changes and surgery can help managing the issue.

Uterine prolapse occurs when muscles and ligaments supporting the uterus weaken causing the uterus to descend into the vaginal canal. It can cause urinary problems, sexual problems and difficulty with bowel movements. Treatments like pelvic floor exercises, hormonal therapy and in some cases hysterectomy are considered.

Cervicitis is an inflammation of the cervix, the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. It can be caused by infections, allergies or physical irritation. Antibiotics, treatment for STIs and practicing safe sex may help.

Hirsutism is an excess hair growth in women in the areas like face, chest and back may be due to PCOs or certain medications. It can be treated by medications and topical treatments, laser and electrolysis for hair removal.

Pseudocyesis also called false pregnancy where a person experiences symptoms of pregnancy like missed periods, abdominal swelling and even labour pains. Treatment includes psychological therapy and medical intervention.

Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that affects some women after the childbirth where feelings of sadness, anxiety and exhaustion is experienced. It can make it difficult to care for yourself and your baby. Treatments include therapy and medication that can help manage the symptoms and support recovery.


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It's recommended for girls to have their first gynecologic visit between the ages of 13 and 15 years, but this can vary based on individual health concerns and guidance from a primary care provider.

Typically, it's advised to visit a gynecologist annually for a routine check-up, though specific needs may vary depending on individual health conditions and recommendations from your doctor.

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