About the Cardiac Sciences

The Cardiac wing at Sunrise Hospital has top cardiovascular surgeons of India, backed by expert Anaesthetists, Intensivists, Critical cure nurses, biomedical technicians, Physiotherapists and Medico- social workers. The Cardiac Emergency Response Team comprises leading Cardiologists, Cardiac Surgeons and Cardiac Anaesthetists, assisted by well-trained medical and paramedical staff, to provide round-the-clock services. We assure the highest quality of patient care and innovative continuing education programs.



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Cardiac Emergency Services


MRI, CT, and Echocardiography

Cardiac Sciences Services

Treatment and Procedure

Coronary artery disease CAD is the narrowing or blockage in the coronary arteries usually caused by atherosclerosis that is a buildup of cholesterol, fat deposits and other substances in the inner walls of the arteries. This can disrupt the blood flow to the heart muscle leading to chest pain, shortness of breath and sometimes causing a heart attack. The risk increases with age, a family history, due to smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, stress and unhealthy diet. Lifestyle changes, following a healthy diet, quitting smoking, medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol and prevent blood clots are prescribed. Procedures like angioplasty, stent replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting are also considered to restore blood flow to the heart.

Hypertension or high blood pressure leads to various cardiovascular complications due to excess pressure against the walls of arteries. Coronary artery disease, heart failure where the heart cannot pump blood effectively, stroke that damages the arteries that supply blood to the brain and aneurysm where artery walls weaken due to blood pressure which in severe cases leads to internal bleeding. Hypertensive retinopathy can also be caused due to high blood pressure that can damage the tiny blood vessels in the eyes, leading to vision problems. Hypertension can be managed through lifestyle changes, medications and regular monitoring with the healthcare team.

Heart failure is a serious condition in which the heart is unable to pump blood effectively may be due to high blood pressure, previous heart attacks, irregular heartbeats or congenital heart defects etc. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, swelling in the legs, ankles and feet, persistent cough and wheezing, sudden weight gain from fluid retention and increased urge to urinate at night. This can be treated by medications like beta- blockers to improve the heart function, lifestyle changes, using devices like pacemakers and surgery like coronary bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery and in severe cases heart transplantation is considered.

Arrhythmias is the irregular heartbeats or causing the heart to beat too fast that is called tachycardia or too slow heartbeats called bradycardia. Atrial fibrillation is the type of rapid irregular beating of the atria, ventricular tachycardia is also fast heartbeat originating in the ventricles. Whereas, Sinus bradycardia is the type of slow heartbeat originating in the sinus node. All this can be caused due to coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, valve disorders, electrolyte imbalances or other medical conditions. Symptoms include palpitations, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, fainting and chest pain. It can be treated by making lifestyle modifications, medications like beta-blockers and anticoagulants and some procedures like catheter ablation, pacemaker and cardioversion to restore normal heart rhythm.

Valvular heart disease is the dysfunction of one or more heart’s valves which controls the flow of blood through the heart’s chambers. Types of valve disease are: Aortic valve disease that includes aortic stenosis that is the narrowing of the aortic valve and aortic regurgitation that is the leakage of the aortic valve. Mitral valve disease includes mitral stenosis and mitral regurgitation, tricuspid valve disease includes tricuspid stenosis and tricuspid regurgitation and pulmonary valve disease involving pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary regurgitation. This is caused by variety of factors like congenital defects, age related wear and tear, Rheumatic fever, infection of the heart valves and connective tissue diseases. Symptoms are shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, dizziness and fainting. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medications and surgical procedures like valve repair and valve replacement.

Cardiomyopathy is the disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the heart’s main pumping chamber that becomes enlarged and cannot effectively pump blood, caused by genetic factors, heart attacks, high blood pressure or infections. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy where the heart muscle thickens and makes it harder for the heart to pump blood which is often hereditary. It cause symptoms like chest pain and shortness of breath. Restrictive cardiomyopathy the heart muscle becomes rigid, preventing it from filling with blood properly. It is caused by conditions like amyloidosis or fibrosis. Treatment includes medications to manage and prevent symptoms like beta- blockers, lifestyle changes, devices like pacemakers or a heart transplant in severe cases.

Congenital heart defects are the structural heart defects present at birth. The abnormal development of the heart and it’s major blood vessels during fetal development. This can affect the walls of the heart, valves, arteries and veins near the heart. Atrial septal defect is a hole in the wall that separates the two upper chambers of the heart, ventricular septal defect that separates lower chambers of the heart. Symptoms include rapid breathing, fatigue, poor blood circulation, swelling in the legs, abdomen or areas around the eyes. Treatment depends on medications, catheter- based procedures to repair defects without surgery or a heart transplant in severe cases.

Rheumatic heart disease is a chronic disease resulting from rheumatoid fever caused by untreated streptococcal throat infection by bacterium streptococcus pyogenes. Rheumatoid fever can damage the heart valves. The mitral valve is often affected followed by the aortic valve. The damage can lead to stenosis or regurgitation, inflammation leading to scarring and deformity, heart failure and in severe cases it might lead to a stroke. Symptoms include shortness of breath, chest pain, fatigue, palpitations and swelling of the feet, ankles or abdomen. Antibiotics, anti- inflammatory medications and surgical treatment like valve repair and valve replacement may be necessary for some cases. Early treatment of strep throat can prevent scarlet fever which is also caused by the same bacterium streptococcus pyogenes spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes and that leads to red rashes in most of the body, sore throat and high fever. It mainly affects in children aged 5 to 15.

Peripheral Artery disease PAD is a condition in which narrowed arteries reduce blood flow to the limbs, mostly the legs. This is caused by atherosclerosis where fat deposits build up in the artery walls and disrupt the blood flow. Symptoms include pain or cramping in the legs or hips, numbness or weakness, chills, weak pulse and sores on toes, feet or legs that won’t heal. This can be caused due to smoking, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol or a family history. Making some lifestyle modifications, taking medications to manage symptoms and sometimes surgery like angioplasty or bypass surgery might be necessary.

Aortic Aneurysm is an abnormal bulge in the walls of aorta, the largest artery in the body mostly affecting the abdomen called abdominal aortic aneurysm and part of the aorta in the chest cavity called the thoracic aortic aneurysm. This can happen due to over age, smoking, high blood pressure, genetic factors or due to any injury. Symptoms include abdominal pain, back pain, cough, chest pain or shortness of breath. Medications to control the symptoms and in some cases surgery like open surgical repair that is removal of aneurysm and replacing it with a graft and through Endovascular Aneurysm repair where a graft is inserted through the arteries are recommended.

Pulmonary hypertension is the high blood pressure that affects arteries in the lungs and in the heart. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a type of hypertension that is caused due to narrowing of the blood vessels in the lungs, which increases blood pressure, it is also caused due to left- sided heart failure or valve diseases and it is also caused from blood clots that obstruct the pulmonary arteries. Symptoms include shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue, fainting, chest pain, selling in the ankles, legs and abdomen and heart palpitations. Treatment involves medications, anticoagulants, oxygen therapy, lifestyle changes and procedures like atrial septostomy or lung transplantation in severe cases is considered.

Myocardial infarction MI also known as a heart attack, occurs when blow flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked and gets damaged. This is due to the buildup of plaque a condition called coronary artery disease. Factors causing these conditions are high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, unhealthy diet, family history or stress that could lead to a heart attack. Symptoms include chest pain, pain in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder or back, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, lightheadedness or cold sweat. Treatments like medications beta- blockers, anticoagulants, statins, procedures like angioplasty and stenting, coronary artery bypass grafting CABG and making lifestyle modifications can help manage the condition.

Angina Pectoris is a chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle due to conditions like coronary artery disease or atherosclerosis. Symptoms includes chest pain, pain in the arms, neck, jaw, shoulder or back, nausea, shortness of breath, sweating and dizziness. Medications like beta- blockers, statins and other medicines to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes like weight reduction, stress management, regular exercise may help control the symptoms. Some procedures like angioplasty, stent replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting to restore blood flow may be recommended for some cases.

Stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted, preventing brain tissue from getting oxygen and nutrients. There is Ischemic stroke, the most common type that occurs when a blood clot blocks or narrows an artery leading to the brain. Other one is hemorrhagic stroke that occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts leading to bleeding in the brain. Symptoms includes some neurological deficits like face drooping one side, arm weakness, paralysis, loss of vision and speech difficulty caused due to high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, family history of stroke and this increases with age. The treatment focuses on restoring blood flow to the brain through medications that remove the clot and surgical interventions may also be needed.

Hyperlipidemia is the high levels of lipids or fats in the blood, including cholesterol and triglycerides. This can be caused genetically affecting the lipid metabolism or due to lifestyle factors or other medical conditions such as obesity, diabetes or hypothyroidism. This could lead to chest pain, heart attack, shortness of breath, stroke, leg pain, severe abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting etc. Treatment includes lifestyle changes to reduce fats and cholesterol, exercise, medications and by monitoring lipid levels to improve the health.

Diabetic heart disease develops in people with diabetes that leads to cardiovascular conditions such as coronary artery disease CAD the narrowing of the coronary arteries, heart failure, the inability of heart to pump blood effectively and diabetic cardiomyopathy is the heart muscle disorder. This condition is caused by chronic high blood sugar levels, hypertension, obesity, cholesterol and smoking etc. Symptoms are chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, palpitations and swelling in legs, ankles or feet. All this can be managed through blood sugar control, lifestyle changes, medications like statins and sometimes surgical intervention like angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting in severe cases may be recommended.

Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves, known as endocardium. It is caused by bacteria that enters the bloodstream and attaches to the heart’s lining which is called infective endocarditis. Other factors like an underlying heart condition, poor dental hygiene or a previous history of endocarditis can cause this condition. Symptoms often include fever and chills, fatigue, night sweats, shortness of breath, chest pain, swelling in the legs, feet or abdomen. Treatment involves the use of intravenous antibiotics to kill the infection, surgical procedures to repair or replace the damaged heart valves is considered in some cases. Apart from this, maintaining good dental hygiene is important and regular medical follow- ups is required.

Pericarditis is an inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac- like membrane surrounding the heart. It is caused by viral, bacterial and fungal infections that leads to symptoms like chest pain, autoimmune disorders and sometimes a heart attack or a kidney failure might also happen. Treatment involves medications like anti- inflammatories, pain killers and antibiotics to kill the infection is prescribed. In severe cases, surgical intervention called pericardiocentesis may be required to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac. Some lifestyle changes are important to reduce the workload on the heart. Regular follow- ups are needed to manage the condition and prevent it’s recurrence.

Thrombosis is the blood clots formed inside a blood vessel called thrombus, that obstruct the blood flow through the circulatory system. Types of thrombosis are; Venous thrombosis occurs in deep veins of the legs, arterial thrombosis that occurs in the arteries could lead to serious conditions like heart attacks and stroke if the blood supply is obstructed. The factors causing this condition can be due to genetic disorder, lifestyle factors like smoking, obesity and also because of some medical conditions like cancer or a heart disease. The risk increases with age. Symptoms are swelling and pain in the affected limb, shortness of breath, coughing up blood or paralysis. The treatment focuses on medications like anticoagulants or blood thinners and sometimes surgical intervention such as thrombectomy, catheter based thrombolysis or a bypass surgery to remove the clot may be needed.


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Frequently Asked Questions Answered

A heart health check-up typically includes a physical examination, blood tests (to check cholesterol levels and other markers), blood pressure measurement, and possibly an ECG or other heart-specific diagnostic tests based on your risk factors and symptoms.

While some heart conditions can be cured or corrected with interventional or surgical procedures, many require lifelong management through lifestyle changes and medications. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve quality of life and outcomes for individuals with heart disease.

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