Psychiatry is the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of emotional, behavioural or cognitive disturbances. Psychiatry department at Sunrise Hospital is headed by Dr. V. Chalamdas MD who has lots of experience behind him in all the areas of psychiatry, particularly child and geriatric mental health. We at Sunrise Hospital assure you a patient listening, empathetic attitude, proper explanation of diagnosis and treatment as well as a brief description of side-effects of medications. We also provide a fully client friendly environment in case the client has to be get admitted. Our department is aptly supported by a team of clinical psychologists, psychiatric social workers Occupational Therapist and Trained Nursing Staff etc.
Neuropsychiatric disorders is a medical term that encompasses a broad range of medical conditions that involve both neurology and psychiatry. The symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders impact brain function, emotion and mood. The problems with focus and learning in the case of ADHD to sadness, irritability, memory problems, mood problems, depression to a variety of other psychiatric and/or neurological symptoms. Medications, psychological and/or psychiatric therapy are common treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders. Specific treatments will vary based on the precise cause, clinical presentation and severity.
Some of common neuropsychiatric disorders are seizures, attention deficit disorders, cognitive deficit disorders, palsies, uncontrolled anger, migraine headaches, addictions, eating disorders, depression and anxiety
Treatment: For mild mental illness with well-controlled symptoms, treatment from your primary care provider may be sufficient. However, often a team approach is appropriate to make sure all your psychiatric, medical and social needs are met.
A psychiatric disorder is a mental illness diagnosed by a mental health professional that greatly disturbs your thinking, moods, and/or behavior and seriously increases your risk of disability, pain, death, or loss of freedom. Most of the patients show depression, personality disorders, anxiety disorders, Schizophrenia, Eating disorders and Addictive behaviours. The symptoms of psychiatric disorders are confused thinking, inability to manage daytoday stress and problems, inability to concentrate, tiredness and sleeping problems, extreme moodswings, drug or alcohol abuse, suicidal thinking, excessive anger some of the common ones.
The types of psychiatric disorders are Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Schizophrenia Disorders, Bipolar and Related Disorders, Depressive Disorders, Anxiety Disorders, Feeding and Eating Disorders, Personality Disorders, Trauma Related Disorders
Treatment: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has several therapeutic applications in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ten sessions of CBT improved depression, anxiety, and quality of life in a group of depressed patients with Parkinson disease.
Our child Guidance Clinic provides family centered treatment for children from age 3 years to 18 years who suffer from mental health and behavioral issues. Trained staff provides individual, family treatment based on the child and family. Our staff members are trained and certified to provide evidence based treatment models for trauma, anxiety, depression and behavioral issues.
Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), is a complicated condition that includes problems with communication and behavior. They have trouble understanding what other people think and feel. This makes it hard for them to express themselves, either with words or through gestures, facial expressions, and touch. People with autism might have problems with learning and develop skills unevenly. Some people with autism show extra ordinary skills with memory, music and arts but have trouble in communicating with people. ASD can be a minor problem or a disability that needs full-time care in a special facility.
Treatment: The type of treatment a child receives for autism spectrum disorder depends on his individual needs as each child who has it is unique, there are a variety of treatments. More children are diagnosed with autism now than ever before. But the latest numbers could be higher because of changes in how it’s diagnosed, not because more children have a disorder.
There are different types of treatment for Autism based on the individual needs of the child.
- Behavioral management therapy
Behavior management therapy tries to strengthen good behaviors and reduce unwanted behaviors. It also suggests what caregivers can do before, during, after, and between episodes of problem behaviors. Behavioral therapy is often based on applied behavior analysis (ABA), a widely accepted approach that tracks a child's progress in improving his or her skills.
- Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a talking therapy that can help patients manage problems by changing the way you think and behave. The most commonly used to treat anxiety and depression, but can be useful for other mental and physical health problems. CBT is based on the concept of thoughts, feelings, physical sensations and actions which are are interconnected, and that negative thoughts and feelings can trap you patients into a negative frame of mind.
- Early intervention for Autism
Early interventions for Autism gives child the best chance of developing to their full potential. The sooner a child gets help, the greater the chance for learning and progress. Early intervention programs includes Family training, Speech therapy, Hearing impairment services, Physical therapy and Nutrition services. This enables the child to learn basic skills such as physical skills, communication skills, thinking skills, social and emotional skills.
In some cases early intrevention with autism make so much progress that they are no longer on the autism spectrum when they become older.
- Physical therapy for Autism
Problems with movement are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and many children with autism receive physical therapy. Physical therapy includes activities and exercises that build motor skills and improve strength, posture, and balance. The therapy aims to help a child build muscle control and strength so that he or she can play more easily with other children.
- Social skills development for Autism
Social skills development for people with autism involves direct or explicit instruction and "teachable moments" with practice in realistic settings, Focus on timing and attention, Support for enhancing communication and sensory integration, Learning behaviors that predict important social outcomes like friendship and happiness, A way to build up cognitive and language skills
- Speech-language therapy for Autism
Speech-language therapists specializes in treating language problems and speech disorders. With early screening and detection of people at risk, speech therapists often lead the way in helping with the diagnosis of autism and in making referrals to other specialists.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begins in childhood and can persist into adulthood. People with ADHD may also have trouble focusing their attention on a single task or sitting still for long periods of time. Both adults and children can have ADHD.
A wide range of behaviors are associated with ADHD. Some of the more common ones are Excessive activity or restlessness, having trouble focusing or concentrating on tasks, being forgetful about completing tasks, being easily distracted, having difficulty sitting still, interrupting people while they’re talking, Low frustration tolerance, Frequent mood swings, Problems following through and completing tasks and Hot temper.
Treatment: ADHD can be managed with the right treatment. There are many treatment options, and what works best can depend on the individual child and family. To find the best options, it is recommended that parents work closely with others involved in their child’s life—healthcare providers, therapists, teachers, coaches, and other family members. Types of treatment for ADHD include Behavior therapy, including training for parents; and Medications.
Depression in childhood is a reality and it's important to get help early if you think your child may be depressed and becomes a long term problem. Most people think of depression as an adult illness, children and adolescents can develop depression as well. Unfortunately, many children with depression go untreated because adults don't recognize they're depressed. Depression in children often presents differently than it does in adults. Children with depression tend to look more irritable and angry. Problems at school can be a sign of depression in children and young people and so can problem behaviour.
Symptoms of Depression in childhood is as follows
- trouble in sleeping or sleeping more
- not be able to concentrate in studies
- interact less with friends and family
- being indecisive
- low in self confidence
- improper eating habits
- have big changes in weight
- talk about feeling guilty or worthless
- feel empty or unable to feel emotions
- having suicidal tendencies
- actually self-harm, for example, cutting their skin or taking an overdose
Some also have physical symptoms, such as headaches and stomach aches and some children have problems with anxiety as well as depression.
Treatment for Depression often involves medications, psychotherapy, lifestyle changes, or a combination. Sometimes parents fear that depression treatment will involve heavy-duty medications with serious side effects. But, medication isn't always needed to treat depression. Talk therapy is another viable treatment option that can be used with or without medication. The treatment plan your child's doctor or psychiatrist recommends will depend on the nature and severity of your child's depression.
Bipolar disorder in children experiences extreme shifts in mood in behaviors that can result in a high, as hyperactive or a low, as a depressive episode. Bipolar disorder is more likely to emerge in the late teen years or in early adulthood. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to help kids learn to manage symptoms and succeed in life. Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder in children are extreme mood swings, aggressive or inappropriate behavior, risky and reckless behaviors that are out of character, alcohol or drug abuse, or wild spending sprees, Insomnia or insufficient sleep, Depressed or irritable mood and Suicidal thoughts or behaviors in older children and teens are found.
Treatment for children with bipolar disorder usually involves a combination of medication, therapy, psychoeducation, and school support. Medication may include a combination of drugs, which can include antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and/or anti-anxiety medication.
Conduct disorder refers to a group of repetitive and persistent behavioral and emotional problems in youngsters. Children and adolescents with this disorder have great difficulty following rules, respecting the rights of others, showing empathy, and behaving in a socially acceptable way. Many factors may lead to a child developing conduct disorder, including brain damage, child abuse or neglect, genetic vulnerability, school failure, and traumatic life experiences.
Children or adolescents with conduct disorder may exhibit some behaviors such as aggression to people and animals, destruction of Property, deceitfulness, lying, or stealing, serious violations of rules
Treatment of children with conduct disorder can be complex and challenging. Treatment can be provided in a variety of different settings depending on the severity of the behaviors. Adding to the challenge of treatment are the child's uncooperative attitude, fear and distrust of adults. Behavior therapy and psychotherapy are usually necessary to help the child appropriately express and control anger. Special education may be needed for youngsters with learning disabilities. Treatment may also include medication in some youngsters who may have difficulty paying attention, impulse problems, or depression. Treatment is rarely brief since establishing new attitudes and behavior patterns takes time. However, early treatment offers a child a better chance for considerable improvement and hope for a more successful future.
A phobia is fear or anxiety that causes an individual to experience extreme, irrational fear about a situation, living creature, place, or object. Phobias are diagnosable mental disorders. The person will experience intense distress when faced with the source of their phobia. This can prevent them from functioning normally and sometimes leads to panic attacks.
A person with a phobia will experience symptoms such as uncontrollable anxiety, unwanted fear, unable to react or fuction properly and inability to control the feelings to source of fear. A person who experiences phobia also gets physical effects of sensations such as sweating, abnormal breathing, fast heartbeat, trembling, hot flushes or chills, a choking sensation, chest pains or tightness, butterflies in the stomach, pins and needles, dry mouth, confusion and disorientation, nausea, dizziness and headache. In younger children, parents may observe that they cry, become very clingy, or attempt to hide behind the legs of a parent or an object and throw tantrums to show their distress.
Treatment: Phobias are very much treatable, and people who have them are aware of their disorder. This helps diagnosis a great deal. Speaking to a psychologist or psychiatrist is a useful first step in treating a phobia that has already been identified. The doctor, psychiatrist, or psychologist may recommend behavioral therapy, medications, or a combination of both. Therapy is aimed at reducing fear and anxiety symptoms and helping people manage their reactions to the object of their phobia.
A learning disability is a neurological disorder which can interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. Children with learning disabilities are as smart or smarter than their peers. But they may have difficulty reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, recalling and/or organizing information if left to figure things out by themselves or if taught in conventional ways. It is important to realize that learning disabilities can affect an individual’s life beyond academics and can impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace. A learning disability can't be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong issue. With the right support and intervention, however, children with learning disabilities can succeed in school and go on to successful, often distinguished careers later in life. Parents can help children with learning disabilities achieve such success by encouraging their strengths, knowing their weaknesses, understanding the educational system, working with professionals and learning about strategies for dealing with specific difficulties.
Common learning disabilities:
* Dyslexia – a language-based disability in which a person has trouble understanding written words. It may also be referred to as reading disability or reading disorder.
* Dyscalculia – a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts.
* Dysgraphia – a writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space.
* Auditory and Visual Processing Disorders – sensory disabilities in which a person has difficulty understanding language despite normal hearing and vision.
* Nonverbal Learning Disabilities – a neurological disorder which originates in the right hemisphere of the brain, causing problems with visual-spatial, intuitive, organizational, evaluative and holistic processing functions.
Treatment: Treatment for specific learning disorder often also involves multimodal teaching. If a child has trouble comprehending a subject with his or her eyes and ears alone, other senses such as touch, taste, and even smell can play a role in the learning process. A learning specialist can help determine the services or accommodations a child might benefit from at school. Psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy in particular, may also be helpful in treating the emotional and behavioral problems that can accompany specific learning disorder.
* Intellectual disability related behavioural disorders
Intellectual disability (ID) is also called mental retardation means below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. People with intellectual disabilities can and do learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. People with intellectual disabilities frequently have some forms of behavioral disorders that may manifest as stereotypies, difficult or disruptive behavior, aggressive behaviors toward other people, behaviors that lead to injury of the self or others, and destruction of property.
Symptoms of Intellectual disability will vary based on your child’s level of disability includes sitting, crawling, or walking later than other children, problems learning to talk or trouble speaking clearly, memory problems, inability to understand the consequences of actions, inability to think logically, childish behavior inconsistent with the child’s age, lack of curiosity, learning difficulties, and inability to lead a fully independent life due to challenges communicating.
There are 4 levels of Intellectual Disability which are Mild Intellectual Disability, Moderate intellectual disability, Severe intellectual disability and Profound intellectual disability.
Treatment: The goal of treatment is to help develop the child’s potential to the fullest. With the right support and an individualized treatment plan, including special education and training, many children with intellectual disabilities will be able to live independently as adults. However, less emphasis is now placed on the degree of intellectual disability and more on the amount of intervention and support needed for daily life.
* Cerebral palsy associated behavioural disturbances
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological condition caused by brain damage and is the most common disability of childhood. In this condition vision, hearing, and sensation are also affected. The symptoms of Cerebral palsy varies from person-to-person and range from mild to severe.
Parents of children with cerebral palsy must be aware of the signs of a behavioral disorder so that the child can be evaluated and treated by experts.
Living with cerebral palsy brings in behavioral challenges in children affecting parents and family members.
Recognizing and addressing the behavioural disturbances early is crucial for helping a child cope these challenges and learn appropriate behaviors.
There are several specific behavioral disturbances that may be diagnosed like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. It is important for parents to recognize specific behaviors that are frequent, persistent, and problematic that may lead to one of these diagnoses. Some of the potentially problematic behaviors that could indicate a behavioral disorder in a child with cerebral palsy. These may include
Self-injury, Harming other people or animals, Threatening others, Destroying property, Lying, Stealing, Cheating at school, Missing school, Smoking, drinking or using, drugs, Disobedience, Hyperactivity, Sexually inappropriate behavior.
Treatment: A behavioral health expert can evaluate your child through a series of observations and tests. Any challenging behaviors, even those not labeled as a disorder, are disruptive and should be evaluated and addressed, both for the child and the child’s family. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a typical type of treatment or intervention for behavioral disorders. It is a type of therapy that teaches skills for identifying negative thoughts and feelings and learning to reframe or correct those negative thoughts and feelings before they become problem behaviors.
Mental health and behavioral problems are among the many issues that can affect children with epilepsy. Epilepsy's psychological effects varies widely from one individual to another. While some people with epilepsy experience fewer mental health issues, others may suffer debilitating problems of inattention, anxiety, or mood disorders. It is important to address these issues early to reduce the consequences they might have on an individual's long-term quality of life.
The most common types of mental health issues associated with epilepsy are depression, attention deficit disorder, anxiety disorders, and aggression.
Depression is the mood disorder most commonly associated with epilepsy. Mostly depression goes unrecognized and untreated in people with the disorder. Epilepsy-related depression can occur before, during, or after seizures, but is most often associated with periods between seizures.
The symptoms of depression vary widely from one individual to another. Those most often seen in children with epilepsy are sleep disturbances, fatigue or listlessness, lack of enthusiasm, and frequent emotional outbursts. Other behavioral issues, such as anxiety, agitation, frustration, or impulsive behaviors, often accompany depression.
- Attention Deficit Disorder
Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity is considered a common behavioral problem in children with epilepsy. In general, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder that causes individuals to be easily distracted, frustrated, fidgety, impulsive, and forgetful. The disorder makes learning and social interactions difficult, regardless of an individual's cognitive abilities.
- Anxiety Disorders
The main symptom of anxiety disorders is excessive fear or worry. Anxiety disorders can also make it hard to breathe, sleep, stay still, and concentrate. Most common Behavioral symptoms of anxiety disorders include Restlessness and agitation, Inability to sit still and remain calm, Social withdrawal and isolation, Agoraphobia
Inability to properly meet responsibilities at home, work, or school, Irritability, Exaggerated startle reflex, Decreased ability to perform normal activities of daily life, Usage of drugs or alcohol to self-medicate the symptoms.
Aggression problems are common among children with epilepsy. The cause of aggression in people with epilepsy varies, the unpredictability of seizures and the individual's lack of control over them may contribute to frustration and irritability. In addition, children who are more severely affected and lack good communication skills may act out their frustration with aggressive or even violent outbursts. In general, aggressive behaviors tend to become less frequent and decrease in severity as a person grows older. However, aggressive tendencies may then be replaced by depression and anxiety.
Autism is a combination of symptoms, characterized by deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication skills, severe social dysfunction, and repetitive behaviors. More than half of kids and teens with autism may be physically aggressive toward caregivers or other kids and grown-ups. This can include hitting, kicking and biting. Other behavior problems can include being hyperactive, anxious and worried, hurting themselves by banging or hitting their heads and biting their hands and fingers .
Children with epilepsy may also need help and support in finding ways to address the social aspects of having a seizure disorder, such as how to talk with peers about epilepsy, and their fear of having seizures. Knowledge is power for the young person, and offering information as well as emotional support can help a child to begin to manage his or her illness. Parental guidance and support is an essential part of this objective. Helping your child to understand what epilepsy is, how his or her brain works, and what is happening during a seizure can help that child feel both empowered and confident.
Suicidal behavior refers to talking about or taking actions related to ending one’s own life. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors should be considered a psychiatric emergency. Suicidal tendencies comes with warning signs such as threats or comments about killing themselves, social withdrawal from friends and family, Increased alcohol or drug use, aggressive behaviour, impulsive of reckless behavious, talking or writing about death and dramatic mood swings.
Tratment: When an individual seeks treatment for suicidal ideation, doctors / psychiatrist will likely attempt to diagnose and treat any medical or psychiatric conditions that may be present. Because a variety of concerns may lead one to experience thoughts of suicide, diagnosing any health concerns, physical or mental, is considered to be an important step in the treatment process. Some individuals may obtain benefit from psychotropic medications, which might be prescribed temporarily along with therapy. In cases of severe suicidal behavior, or when an individual reaches a point of crisis, hospitalization or intense in-patient or out-patient treatment may be necessary. Because suicidal ideation may lead to deteriorating physical health or self-injury, medical treatment may also be necessary for some individuals.
Alcoholism, now known as alcohol use disorder, is a condition in which a person has a desire or physical need to consume alcohol, even though it has a negative impact on their life. Alcohol addiction can show itself in a variety of ways. The severity of the disease, how often someone drinks, and the alcohol they consume varies from person to person. Some people drink heavily all day, while others binge drink and then stay sober for a while.
Alcohol addiction can be difficult to recognize. When is it common in society, it can be hard to tell the difference between someone who likes to have a few drinks now and then and someone with a real problem.
Some symptoms of alcohol addiction are increased quantity or frequency of use, high tolerance for alcohol, or lack of “hangover” symptoms, drinking at inappropriate times, such as first thing in the morning, or in places like church or work, wanting to be where alcohol is present and avoiding situations where there is none
changes in friendships; someone with an alcohol addiction may choose friends who also drink heavily, avoiding contact with loved ones, hiding alcohol, or hiding while drinking, dependence on alcohol to function in everyday life, increased lethargy, depression, or other emotional issues, legal or professional problems such as an, arrest or loss of a job. As an addiction tends to get worse over time, it’s important to look for early warning signs. If identified and treated early, someone with an alcohol addiction may be able to avoid major consequences of the disease.
Treatment: Treating alcohol addiction can be complex and challenging. In order for treatment to work, the person with an alcohol addiction must want to get sober.
*Residential treatment involves living at a treatment facility while undergoing intensive treatment during the day. Residential treatment normally lasts from 30-90 days.
*Partial hospitalization is for people who require ongoing medical monitoring but have a stable living situation. These treatment programs usually meet at the hospital for 3-5 days a week, 4-6 hours per day.
*Intensive outpatient programs (IOP) focus on relapse prevention and can often be scheduled around work or school.
*Therapy (Individual, Group, or Family) can help you identify the root causes of your alcohol use, repair your relationships, and learn healthier coping skills.
Drug addiction is a disease that affects a person's brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication. Substances such as smoking opioids, marijuana and nicotine also are considered drugs. Drug addiction can start with experimental use of a recreational drug in social situations, and, for some people, the drug use becomes more frequent. For others, particularly with opioids, drug addiction begins with exposure to prescribed medications, or receiving medications from a friend or relative who has been prescribed the medication.
Treatment: Drug treatment is intended to help addicted individuals stop compulsive drug seeking and use. Treatment can occur in a variety of settings, take many different forms, and last for different lengths of time. Because drug addiction is typically a chronic disorder characterized by occasional relapses, a short-term, one-time treatment is usually not sufficient. For many, treatment is a long-term process that involves multiple interventions and regular monitoring.
Geriatric Psychiatry is the practice of psychiatry in older adults, who have traditionally been defined as patients older than 65 years of age. Geriatric psychiatry clinic emphasizes the biological and psychological aspects of normal aging, the psychiatric effect of acute and chronic physical illness, and the biological and psychosocial aspects of the pathology of primary psychiatric disturbances of older age. Geriatric psychiatrists focus on prevention, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of mental and emotional disorders in the elderly and improvement of psychiatric care for healthy and ill elderly patients.
Most common geriatric psychiatry illnesses that are prevalent in the elderly include depression, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, anxiety, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Symptoms include greater levels of apathy, psychomotor retardation and disability, and less agitation, psychoses, family history of psychiatric illness, guilt, and insight versus other older depressed persons.
Dementia is not a single disease, but a term to describe symptoms of impairment in memory, communication, and thinking.
The most common causes of dementia include degenerative neurological diseases like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and some types of multiple sclerosis. These diseases get worse over time. Some of the causes for dimentia are Vascular disorders which affect the blood circulation in your brain, Traumatic brain injuries caused by car accidents, falls, concussions, Infections of the central nervous system like meningitis and HIV, Long-time alcohol or drug use and buildup of fluid in the brain
Symptoms of dimentia are short-term memory problems, like forgetting where you put something or asking the same question over and over, communication problems like not being about to come up with a word, getting lost, trouble with complex but familiar tasks, like fixing a meal or paying bills, personality changes, like depression, agitation, paranoia, and mood swings.
Treatment: All or almost all forms of dementia are treatable, in that medication and supportive measures are available to help manage symptoms in patients with dementia. However, most types of dementia remain incurable or irreversible and treatment results in only modest benefits.
Some dementias disorders, however, may be successfully treated, with patient returning to normal after treatment. These dementias are ones caused by side effects of medications or illicit drugs; alcohol, tumors that can be removed, buildup of cerebral spinal fluid in the brain, Metabolic disorders, such as a vitamin B12 deficiency, Hypothyroidism (condition that results from low levels of thyroid hormones), Hypoglycemia (a condition that results from low blood sugar) and Depression
Screen addiction is a term that we are seeing more and more often in the media, and has been used to denote various types of screen-related bad behaviours. It’s when screen use becomes so compulsive that it leads to impaired daily functioning in terms of productivity, social relationships, physical health, or emotional well-being.
Children are susceptible to significant changes in structure and connectivity which can stunt neural development and lead to a screen dependency disorder. Some of the Screen Dependency Disorder are facebook addiction, internet addiction, video Game addiction, online game addiction, mobile phone dependence, and social network site addiction. Some signs and symptoms of Screen Use Disorder may present themselves in both physical and emotional manifestations.
Some of the emotional symptoms of Screen Use Disorder are depression, dishonesty, feelings of guilt, anxiety, feelings of Euphoria when using the Computer, inability to Prioritize or Keep Schedules, isolation, no Sense of Time, defensiveness, avoidance of Work, agitation, mood Swings, fear, loneliness and Boredom with Routine Tasks
Some physical symptoms of Screen Dependency Disorder are backache, carpal Tunnel Syndrome, headaches, insomnia, poor Nutrition (failing to eat or eating in excessively to avoid being away from the computer), poor personal hygiene (e.g., not bathing to stay online), neck Pain, dry eyes and other vision problems and weight gain or loss.
The first step in treatment is the recognition that a problem exists. If you do not believe you have a problem, you are not likely to seek treatment. One of the overarching problems with the screen use disorder is that there is often no accountability and no limits. You are hidden behind a screen – and some things that you may say or do online are things you would never do in person.
Stuttering or Stammering is a speech disorder. Kids who stammer say repeated words, sounds, or syllables, halting speech production, uneven rate of speech. Most children won’t continue to stutter in adulthood. Typically, as your child’s development progresses, the stuttering will stop. Early intervention can also help prevent stuttering in adulthood. There are multiple possible causes of stuttering like family history of stuttering, neurophysiology, development during childhood
and Brain injuries from a stroke can cause neurogenic stuttering. Severe emotional trauma can cause psychogenic stuttering. Stuttering may run in families because of an inherited abnormality in the part of the brain that governs language. If you or your parents stuttered, your children may also stutter.
Treatment: Not all children who stutter will require treatment because developmental stuttering usually resolves with time. Speech therapy is an option for some children